of a Turbocharger
.....Turbochargers, increase engine power output
due to the turbo's ability to compress air that goes into the engine combustion
chambers. A turbos internal components do not have a mechanical connection
with the engine. Hot exhaust gases exiting the cylinders cause the turbine blade
to spin. Since exhaust gases are a waste product, the energy produced by the turbo
is said to be free. Below are the typical components of a turbocharger.
3. Waste gate (valve)
(CHRA) Contains compressor seal assembly, turbine seal assembly, bearings, shaft,
oil or coolant passages.
5. Actuator (to control waste gate)
a turbo is located on the exhaust manifold, but some are placed further down the
exhaust stream. When hot exhaust gases enter the turbine housing they are expelled
out of the turbo by means of an exhaust pipe, commonly referred to as a downpipe.
On the other side of the turbocharger (cold side) is a compressor wheel that draws
in air through a pipe which is usually connected to your air filter which compresses
the atmospheric gases. Inside the turbo, the turbine wheel is connected to a shaft
that is attached via the compressor wheel. The turbine wheel and compressor wheel
are contained in a spiral shaped housing that directs exhaust flow from one side,
and compressed air on the other side. The shaft that connects the two wheels rides
on bearings to prevent seizing.
.....A turbo's ability to compress air can begin as low as 1600
rpm. The turbine wheel begins to spin when the force of the hot exhaust gases
are directed through the exhaust housing side of the turbo. As these gases come
into contact with the turbine wheel, the fins (think of a pin wheel) direct gases
towards the center of the housing. This action is referred to as vortex flow.
Since the compressor wheel is connected to the turbine wheel, it also begins to
spin. This action causes air to be drawn into the compressor wheel and housing.
From the compressor housing, the air exits under pressure into the cylinders.
Now that the intake stream is pressurized, the cylinders are being compressed
with air instead of atmospheric pressure filling the vacuum the pistons create.
For example - sea level atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi (pounds per square inch),
and the turbo is developing 15 psi. As a result air is being fed into the cylinders
at 29.7 psi. As every motorhead knows, more air, more fuel, more POWER.
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